Migrant smuggling and the violence question: evolving illicit migration markets for Cuban and Haitian refugees

    Abstract  Comparing Cuban and Haitian migrant smuggling schemes, this article explores the relationship between violence and the social
    organization of migrant smuggling, including the smuggling of refugees. Levels of violence, political repression, and ethnic
    persecution in sending states provide an important context for understanding the origins and organization of this illicit
    market. Examining the violent threats and acts directed at migrants en route, we argue that violence is not a necessary part
    of the illicit market for unauthorized migration, attenuated by the social networks, cultural norms, and contractual relationships
    in which it is embedded.

    • Content Type Journal Article
    • DOI 10.1007/s10611-009-9196-y
    • Authors
      • David Kyle, UC Davis Sociology One Shields Avenue Davis CA 95616 USA
      • Marc Scarcelli, UC Davis Political Science Davis CA USA

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